PEDIATRIC NEUROPSYCHOLOGY EVALUATION AND TREATMENT
THE NEUROPSYCHOLOGY CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTER CREATES A VERY COMFORTABLE PEDIATRIC SETTING. OPTIMAL LEARNING/DEVELOPMENT REQUIRES RELAXED ALERTNESS. THE CAPACITY FOR FEELINGS AND ATTACHMENT ARE VERY NECESSARY STEPS TOWARD THOUGHT, LANGUAGE AND HEALTHY DEVELOPMENT. YOUR CHILDREN’S GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IS EVIDENCE OF THE POWER OF HUMAN POTENTIAL! MIND AND HEART, LEARNING AND LOVING; TOGETHER, A CHILD’S SPIRIT GROWS.
- PEDIATRIC NEUROPSYCHOLOGY AUTISM INITIATIVE: BRAIN-BEHAVIOR AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM
- PEDIATRIC BRAIN INJURY PROGRAM
- ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDERS/LEARNING DISORDERS/DYSLEXIA PROGRAM
Brain-behavior research and practice has provided a more in-depth understanding of the multiple brain areas involved in child development and learning. Neuropsychological studies and computerized technology have aided in understanding the cerebral organization and psychological structure of the functions of learning: ATTENTION, EXECUTIVE FUNCTION, PERCEPTION, MEMORY, SPEECH, LANGUAGE, SESORY-MOTOR AND MOOD. These functions are dependent upon biological (structural-electrical-chemical) and external (environmental/social) cues and together present a very dynamic process throughout development.
The theoretical framework of the Neuropsychology Child Development Center is based upon Systems Biology Theory.
Brain-behavior research and practice has provided a more in-depth understanding of the multiple brain areas involved in child development and learning. Neuropsychological studies and computerized technology have aided in understanding the cerebral organization and psychological structure of the functions of learning: attention, executive function, perception, memory, speech, language, sensory-motor and mood. These functions are dependent upon biological (structural-electrical-chemical) and external, environmental/social cues and together present a very dynamic process throughout development.
NeuroSystems Evaluation and NeuroSystems Treatment are trademarks of programs developed by pediatric neuropsychologist, Dr. Valerie L. Nowinski, from 1985 to date.The focus of NeuroSystems Evaluation and NeuroSystems Treatment is a systemic understanding of the brain’s cerebral organization and psychological structure and dynamics. The brain is not just an assembly of interconnections of genes, proteins, structure, chemicals and electrical activity… Understanding these components and interconnections of the brain system is very important, yet not sufficient enough to understand the complexity of this organ. Systems Theory focuses upon the patterns and relationships among these components and interconnections. It focuses upon how the various brain areas and functional processes interact and how they change throughout development and how changes in one part of the system can affect other parts. This theoretical framework, based upon Systems Biology, highlights the brain as a very dynamic and complex system. Robustness is an essential property of all biological systems. The brain is certainly the most robust of biological systems. THE BRAIN IS THE ONLY ORGAN IN THE HUMAN SYSTEMS THAT LEARNS! A major property of any robust system is adaptation, the ability to cope with environmental and intra-organism changes. NeuroSystems Evaluation and NeuroSystems Treatment promote a highly specialized understanding of the working relationship of multiple brain areas and the working relationship of multiple learning functions associated with these areas. This systems approach allows for heightened understanding of the properties of learning, particularly adaptation, growth and performance. The better we understand the brain, at a biological systems level, the better we understand how to improve brain performance. For analogy purposes, we can ask ourselves, how can one improve the performance of any function without understanding the dynamic systems process of the function. It would be like tasting a gourmet meal, knowing what the individual component ingredients are, but yet not knowing the process and interaction among the ingredients resulting in the meal that tantalizes the palate. To replicate or improve the gourmet dish, we must understand the process involved. An interdisciplinary approach is emphasized including biological, psychological, and educational intervention. Health and education collaboration is very important. Neuropsychological evaluation and treatment aid in recognizing when further health assessment may be necessary. Interdisciplinary services may include consultation with other specialties, for example:
- Developmental Pediatrics
- Sleep Specialits
- Behavioral Psychology
- Allied Health
THE NEUROPSYCHOLOGY CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTER CREATES A VERY COMFORTABLE PEDIATRIC ENVIRONMENT. OPTIMAL LEARNING/DEVELOPMENT REQUIRES RELAXED ALERTNESS. THE CAPACITY FOR FEELINGS AND ATTACHMENT ARE VERY NECESSARY STEPS TOWARD THOUGHT, LANGUAGE AND HEALTHY DEVELOPMENT. YOUR CHILDREN’S GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IS EVIDENCE OF THE POWER OF HUMAN POTENTIAL! MIND AND HEART, LEARNING AND LOVING; TOGETHER, A CHILD’S SPIRIT GROWS.
Evaluation involves comprehensive developmental tests and informal play-based assessment of children’s attention, reception, analysis, memory, expression, organization, and self direction.
ATTENTION – EXECUTIVE FUNCTION – MEMORY – SPEECH – LANGUAGE – SENSORY – MOTOR – MOOD – SOCIAL FUNCTIONS
- The identification of specific behaviors affected
- Identification of the brain areas involved
- Identification of the working relationship of these areas affecting development (i.e., level of performance, patterns of performance, right brain/left brain differences, etc.)
- The working relationship/impact of one function of behavior upon another function
- Clinical correlation with structural, electrical/chemical data (i.e., EEG, MRI)
- Clinical correlation with environmental data (i.e., school, allied health, and nutrition data)
This type of specialized evaluation addresses the child’s development and learning regarding attention, executive function, speech, language, memory, sensory, motor, and mood functions. It provides diagnostic information that results in the development of specifically designed treatment programs and promotes children’s brain development, learning, and quality of life.
WHAT SKILLS/FUNCTIONS ARE EVALUATED?
CONDITIONS FOR WHICH PARENTS MOST COMMONLY SEEK EVALUATION AND TREATMENT INCLUDE:
- Attention: visual – auditory – tactile
- Multisensory Reception/Perception
- Executive/Expression skills: Organization, Planning, Self-Direction
- Speech & Language
- Visual spatial
- Sensory skills & Motor coordination
- Academic Achievement
- Social Skills
- Autism and related pervasive developmental disorders
- Pediatric Brain Injury
- Attention Deficit Disorders
- Learning disabilities
- Speech/language disorders
- Sensory/motor disorders
- Tourette Disorder
- Developmental/learning problems associated with Epilepsy/seizure disorders
- Developmental/learning problems associated with Head Injury
PRINT THE NDC EVALUATION AND TREATMENT REFERRAL FORM
THE PEDIATRIC NEUROPSYCHOLOGY CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTER CREATES A VERY COMFORTABLE PEDIATRIC ENVIRONMENT. OPTIMAL LEARNING/DEVELOPMENT REQUIRES RELAXED ALERTNESS. THE CAPACITY FOR FEELINGS AND ATTACHMENT ARE VERY NECESSARY STEPS TOWARD THOUGHT, LANGUAGE AND HEALTHY DEVELOPMENT. YOUR CHILDREN’S GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IS EVIDENCE OF THE POWER OF HUMAN POTENTIAL! MIND AND HEART, LEARNING AND LOVING; TOGETHER, A CHILD’S SPIRIT GROWS. Treatment is based upon the Evaluation results. Treatment programs specifically address both efficient and inefficient brain pathways affecting your child’s development. We utilize state-of-the-art technology that develops brain functions. Addressing the child’s efficient and inefficient brain connections promotes health among these brain pathways, promoting your child’s development, learning, the ability to relate with external/social cues, and developing your child’s quality of life.
PROGRAMS THAT DEVELOP THE BRAIN AND PROMOTE YOUR CHILD’S HEALTH
All treatment programs focus upon the brain as a system involving attention, executive function, memory, speech/language, sensory/motor, and mood/social functions. Specialized treatment programs are developed for your child based upon the evaluation results. Our Treatment Center incorporates several programs.
- PEDIATRIC NEUROPSYCHOLOGY BASED AUTISM PROGRAM (click here)
- SENSORY ATTENTION AND EYE MOVEMENT PROGRAM (click here)
- MULTISENSORY MEMORY TRAINING PROGRAM (click here)
- SENSORY MODULATION, PROCESSING, INTEGRATION, AND “AWARENESS THROUGH MOVEMENT®” PROGRAM (click here)
- SPEECH/LANGUAGE THERAPY PROGRAM AND THE LISTENING CENTER (click here)
- BEHAVIOR AND SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS/SOCIAL SKILLS PROGRAM (click here)
- NEUROFEEDBACK: EEG BIOFEEDBACK (click here)
- MEDICAL/ ALLIED HEALTH/ENVIRONMENTAL WELLNESS/ NUTRITION COLLABORATION (click here)
- EDUCATION COLLABORATION (click here)
- SPEAKERS PROGRAM/CONFERENCES/CONSULTATION/ STAFF DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM (click here)
- LINKS WITH AUTISM ORGANIZATIONS (click here)
- CLINICAL RESEARCH PROGRAM (click here)
- AUTISM SONG “DRIVEN TO DISTANCE- A SENSORY JOURNEY THROUGH AUTISM” (click here)
SENSORY ATTENTION AND EYE MOVEMENT PROGRAM
This program focuses upon modulating alertness and multisensory attention in the brain and easing sensory pathways. Wake states, sleep states and what a child does in between wake and sleep, relies on brain pathways associated with sense organs. Every time your child hears, sees, touches, tastes, and smells, sensory pathways in the brain and body are charged. Children having developmental diffficulties often experience an overexcitation (too many switch-ons) and/or over inhibition (too many switch-offs) among multiple pathways that disrupt their sensory contact with their environment. The inefficient sensory “switch-ons” or “switch-offs” throughout the brain can also affect other body pathways. This is one of the reasons why some children having developmental difficulties experience food/airborne sensitivities, immune/gastrointestinal symptoms among other metabolic symptoms.
When a child’s sensory system is overwhelmed, stress hormones are alerted and anxiety increases. Children having developmental difficulties often experience sensory problems. It becomes difficult for them to receive sensory information from their environment and difficult for them to consolidate the sensory information in memory. This is why stimuli often seem continuously novel for them and is difficult for them to learn from memory traces. This is also why learning by repetition becomes helpful. Repetition alerts the brain’s sensory pathways allowing for better recollection and then reflection of behavior as a child develops.
Eye movement and eye contact are reliable indicators of neurodevelopment and sensory input. It is one of the first signs that a child’s visual attention to his/her environment. As children grow, eye movement becomes more smooth and targeted to specific stimuli including sound and touch. Children can better focus attention, sustain attention, and switch attention, to necessary sensory information in order to grow and develop.
Treatment procedures within this program focus upon “timing” of sensory brain pathways, allowing your child to more efficiently and peacefully attend to the environment and feel peaceful rhythms physiologically throughout the body.
The eye movement/eye tracking program uses comfortable advanced technology/specialized cameras to evaluate eye movement and measure treatment progress. Eye movement training focuses upon facial recognition, object recognition, and the development of visual attention, visual perception, and visual memory. These visual brain pathways are strongly connected with auditory, sensory, motor, and mood brain pathways so as to integrate a child’s sensory development.
Modulation of eye movement is comfortable, calming and helps the child connect with his or her environment. Parents are also given visual graphs demonstrating their child’s eye movement and tracking progress.
MULTISENSORY MEMORY TRAINING PROGRAM
Children having developmental difficulties often experience overwhelmed sensory systems. Stress hormones are alerted and anxiety increases. As this happens, they have difficulty receiving sensory information and have difficulty consolidating this sensory information in memory. This is why stimuli often seem continuously novel for them and it is difficult for the children to learn from memory traces.
Memory training incorporates multisensory programs using repetition, recollection, and reflection exercises based on the child’s level of development and as documented by the formal evaluation results. Multiple aspects of memory are addressed including visual memory, auditory memory, tactile memory, rote memory, short term memory, and working memory, long term memory. Memory consolidation is necessary for the development of selective attention and efficiency and smoothness of eye movement, eye contact, and global sensory development. Repetition, recollection, and reflection from memory also aids in planning, organizational skills that help a child regulate his/her behavior. Example: repetitive trail learning of well known behavior program: ABA (Applied Behavior Analysis). As behaviors are consolidated in memory though ABA a child can better regulate the particular behavior being worked on. Consistent recollection and reflection exercises following the repetitive exercises aid in increased regulation of behavior. The behavior becomes less novel to the child and promotes his/her learning of the behavior.
SENSORY MODULATION, PROCESSING, INTEGRATION AND “AWARENESS THROUGH MOVEMENT®” PROGRAM
Your child’s sensory development and movement rely on some of the very first brain pathways governing your child’s development. We help you to recognize and treat the warning signs of sensory motor delays such as irregular head movements, irregular eye movement, irregular rolling, sitting, crawling, walking, and warning signs of right/left in-coordination, difficulty with sensory integration, and multi sensory sensitivities. Occupational Therapy and Physical Therapy programs are very important.
Our program utilizes Feldenkrais® and related “Awareness Through Movement ®” programs. The Feldenkrais® movement method (www.feldenkrais.com) is an internationally recognized program that promotes learning and brain growth using gentle movements, guiding the speed and timing of sensory motor reflexes throughout the body. The sessions develop communication among sensory pathways through movement. This enables movement input to flow freely throughout the brain. Sensory attention improves affecting learning and developing your child’s potential.
Learning to move with less effort makes daily life easier. We focus upon health and the relationship between movement and increased awareness, attention, and learning. Movement is an integral part of the learning process. We teach the child modulated movement, relaxed breathing, and efficient sleep exercises that aid in his/her development.
During sensory-movement sessions, children often express feelings of relaxation and more ease. They breathe more freely, their thoughts have more clarity, and they have more body control. The wake/sleep cycles are eased without artificial means and this process also empowers their esteem and development. In essence, Feldenkrais and related sensory movement programs teach children how to improve their health and life through organized modulation/timing of sensations and movement.
SPEECH/LANGUAGE THERAPY PROGRAM AND THE LISTENING CENTER
Your child’s speech and language development involves connections among multiple brain pathways. Speech and language development is a multisensory attention, reception memory, and expression experience. The auditory cortex (sound brain) is strongly connected with pathways of the sensory motor cortex (sensory and movement brain), the visual cortex (seeing brain), and the limbic subcortex (mood and sensory/memory brain). The vestibular nerve/system (sensory/balance brain) influences vibration and movement throughout the body. All of these pathways and their connections govern the development of your child’s speech and language. Decades of clinical research among multiple professions including neuropsychology, medicine, acoustics, physiology, music therapy, etc have increased our knowledge of speech/language development. Children having developmental difficulties often experience an ear-brain connection problem. Hearing is not usually the problem; it is the ear-brain connection that experiences delays. Sound travels through the auditory canal to the eardrum, vibrating the middle ear bones. The inner ear takes this vibration energy and converts it to electrochemical messages and carries them through auditory pathways to the brain. The brain interprets these messages as sound. When auditory perception is distorted a child’s attention, emotional, cognitive, social, and academic development becomes difficult.
Formal Speech and Language therapy and Listening programs including music based auditory modulation and sensory-vibration modulation programs that train auditory brain areas to process sound. Comfortable headphones using air conduction and/or bone conduction programs transmit modulated vibration and modulated sound. Home-based auditory training programs are also provided.
Auditory related pathways throughout the brain and body influence not only speech and language but also increase your child’s attention, perception, sensory, motor, mood, and self-regulatory executive function skills. Language reception (understanding language), memory, and expression (speaking, singing. signing) occur when the brain recognizes and interprets the sound through vibration, movement, visuals, touch, music, and multi sensory stimuli.
BEHAVIOR AND SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS/SOCIAL SKILLS PROGRAM
Children having developmental difficulties can be sensorially overwhelmed often resulting in mood deregulation. The children also use much energy to cope with the impact of pervasive developmental delays that can often be quite draining. A child’s mood and social development are associated with delays of attention, perception, memory, speech, language, sensory, and motor development.
Specialized behavior programs based upon your child’s evaluation results are developed. Family support is always a very important part of the program. The behavioral programs help relax and calm your child and guide their behaviors. Through these programs children are better able to communicate with their family and environment and develop social skills.
ABA: Applied Behavior Analysis Focus
All children are unique and require individual attention. Our center customizes ABA to the needs of each child. ABA is structured and builds upon a child’s strengths using repetitive learning and positive reinforcement. Parent involvement is very important so that the children can generalize what they learn through ABA into other environments including school and developing social relationships.
ABA underscores that the environment is closely linked with behavior and that consequences have an effect upon behavior. If a behavior is followed by pleasant event/positive reinforcement, then it will occur more often. In the 1970’s Ivar Lovaas from the University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) conducted research using these behavioral principles. He and his colleagues pioneered ABA using behavioral principles in treating children with Autism/Developmental Delays. Some of his design included working in the child’s home environment. Lovaas’ research revealed that “47% of children who received 35-40 hours of 1:1 behavioral intervention in their home demonstrated an increase of 30 IQ points and were indistinguishable from their peers when placed in a school setting” (Lovass, 1987-1993).
ABA is a behavioral conditioning technique that provides repetitive trial behavior teaching. Trial methods teach specific behaviors. It is very clear to the child what behavior is expected of him/her and consistent positive reinforcement aids in learning the behavior. The program covers 3 components: the discriminating stimulus (SD), is the instruction given to the child; the response (R), the child’s response to the instruction; and the reinforcing stimulus (SR), the reinforcement given to the child. This technique can be used to teach social/play skills, language skills, self help/self awareness skills, and academic skills.
Social Relationships/Social Skills Focus
Individual sessions with the children and group sessions are offered. Clinicians develop individualized Social Stories using the child’s portrait and drawings as well as other visualizations that describe social relationships and behaviors. Role playing and the Picture Exchange Communication Programs (PECS) are also used. PECS are visually based language cards. These programs guide the fundamental focus of the program: development of awareness of self and other.
Sensory Modulation Focus
The center houses child friendly sensory rooms equipped with comfortable technology that eases sensory overload. As children become less sensorially overwhelmed, children can learn with more ease and success.
- Cushioned and soft squeeze machines that allow a child to roll through eased levels of cushioned pressure throughout the body
- Soft fiber optics with adjustable speeds
- Comfortable cushioned chairs with vibration at altered speeds
- Auditory/sound programs using soothing altered frequencies of sound
As children having developmental delays grow, speech and language can powerfully help guide and self direct their behaviors. Language specialists work with the children in developing expressive language (talking aloud or signing) with visual cues regarding mood and social skills and social awareness development. As the child progresses and expressively guides his or her behavior, the clinicians emphasize the development of internal speech (silent self talk) to guide and self direct his/her behaviors. Your child’s comprehensive evaluation results allow the clinicians to develop the language related behavior programs based specifically upon your child’s level of development.
NEUROFEEDBACK: EEG BIOFEEDBACK
Your child’s comprehensive evaluation results are used regarding recommendations for Neurofeedback. Neurofeedback training is unique in that it does not introduce anything chemical or foreign into the brain. It uses the brain to improve itself. Neurofeedback: EEG Biofeedback is a comfortable brain wave training method that increases attention skills and learning. The mind/body connection is incredibly powerful. We respond to multisensory stimuli from the environment through our sense organs (i.e. eyes, ears….). As we respond to sensory stimuli brain wave activity is excited (“switch- ons”) and inhibited (“switch-offs”). Optimal learning requires relaxed alertness: comfortable and regulated states of switch- ons and switch- offs. The brain performs at different levels for different tasks. Electrical signals fire at different frequencies depending upon tasks/activities. Neurofeedback is a technique from which the brain learns to regulate switch- ons and switch- offs. It measures the electrical signals and builds upon learning that facilitates efficient switches- on and switches- off, comfortable frequencies that regulate a child’s attention and learning. Two computers are used. Representations of brain activity are visualized on one computer screen. The child views another computer screen that displays simple to complex learning related games. The child plays a game on the computer and when optimal brain frequencies are produced (efficient switch- ons and switch- offs) the child earns points. When optimal frequencies are not being produced, there is no reinforcement. Overtime the child learns how to regulate his or her focusing of attention, sustaining attention, and switching attention in order to earn more points. With training, the brain learns to produce these frequencies on its own.
Advances in neuroscience technology have increased the clinical use of neurofeedback and research especially over the past 25 years. Neurofeedback offers evidence based technology in being able to improve brain development and learning. Frank H. Duffy (2000), a professor and pediatric neurologist and Harvard Medical School, has said that scholarly literature now suggests that neurofeedback “should play a major therapeutic role in many difficult areas,…if any medication had demonstrated such a wide spectrum of efficacy it would be universally accepted and widely used” (Duffy, FH., Editorial: The state of EEG Biofeedback therapy (EEG operant conditioning), (In editor’s opinion clinical electroencephalography, 31 (1): V.III, 2000).
MEDICAL/ALLIED HEALTH/ENVIRONMENTAL WELLNESS/ NUTRITION COLLABORATION
An interdisciplinary approach regarding child development evaluation and treatment is very important. The Pediatric Neuropsychology Child Development Center provides biological, psychological, and education collaboration. Neuropsychological evaluation and treatment aid in recognizing if further physiological evaluation/ treatment is necessary (i.e., brain wave, EEG, MRI, metabolic profiles). An interdisciplinary network is available: Pediatric Neurology, Developmental Pediatrics, Pediatric Psychiatry, Otology/Audiology Sleep Specialists, Behavioral Psychology, Developmental Ophthalmology and Optometry, Gastroenterology, Nutrition: Environmental Wellness Consultation, Allergy/Immunology, Genetics, Chiropractic, Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy among others. We encourage team collaboration with health specialists addressing the multiple underling conditions that can be associated with developmental disorders and evaluating airborne/food/ environmental sensitivities/allergies/toxins that can influence a child’s health and development.
Understanding the biological-social link is not a new idea. Survival of species has always been dependent upon living in harmony with the world. Environmental influences affect digestion, respiration, muscles, skin, and other physiological functions and also impact mental functions of attention, memory, speech, language, sensory/motor and mood. Metabolic processes that govern global physiological health are closely linked with brain metabolism: brain chemistry (neurotransmitters) and electrophysiological impulses (brain wave rhythms). Some children having developmental delays can be at risk for environmental sensitivities. This link is usually related versus casual in origin. Everyone’s system is unique, “one man’s food is another man’s poison” (Hippocrates). Seek qualified health professional advice to guide these biological-environmental sensitivities. How your child feels physically and mentally is key to optimal growth and well being.
An interdisciplinary approach to child development evaluation and treatment is very important. The Pediatric Neuropsychology Child Development Center provides biological, psychological, and educational collaboration. The director of educational services and the clinical education team is available to consult with educational professionals. Consultation regarding your child’s Individual Educational Plan (IEP) or Classroom Accommodation Plan/Support Services (504 Plan) is available. The neuropsychological evaluation can aide in specifying eligibility criteria and educational support programs for your child. Early educational documentation and education support is best so as to:
- Promote your child’s learning and potential
- Provide an educational environment that eases “sensory storms”
- Provide interdisciplinary support services
- Help prevent regression or poor recoupment of functions
- Help develop your child’s self sufficiency
The Pediatric Neuropsychology Child Development Center enjoys positive working relationships with multiple school districts. Formal ‘Brain-Based Learning’ reports, based upon the neuropsychological evaluation results are also available as are conferences with school professionals. Interdisciplinary collaboration is integral to your child’s growth and potential.
SPEAKERS PROGRAM/ CONFERENCES/CONSULTATION/STAFF DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM
Professionals at the Pediatric Neuropsychology Child Development Center are often invited speakers at local, national, and international conferences. Our presentations focus upon developing an understanding of brain pathways and related functions associated with child development. Understanding the multiple underlying etiologies, early identification, evaluation, and treatment are important. This brain-behavior model emphasizes neuroplasticity/brain growth. The brain is a powerful organ. Children can learn and develop their potential.
Special Focus Conferences (click here)
Consultation/staff development programs (link to consultation/staff page) are available to hospitals, schools, libraries, allied health organizations, and physician offices. Teleconferences and video conferences are available.
CLINICAL RESEARCH PROGRAM
For greater than 30 years, we have studied the impact of electrophysiological dysrythmias variants affecting the systemic organization of brain functions especially perceptual, cognitive, and behavioral functions. Multiple sleep deprived electroencephalograms and 24 hour- 72 hour ambulatory electroencephalograms including video monitoring have been clinically correlated with formal neuropsychological evaluation data.
It has been well documented that children having developmental delays have an increased incidence of electrophysiological dysrythmias/variants affecting their development. If seizure/dysrythmia activity is noted, medical treatment and specialized treatment programs addressing the brain-behavior symptom complex have shown promising results, especially with early intervention. These therapeutic interventions can be used without medication depending on EEG results.
The children’s development and growth underscores the impact of this research and emphasizes the need for more specific identification, especially early identification, and treatment of this sub-group of individuals experiencing electrophysiological disturbances affecting their development and learning.